Presenting unaltered video in an inaccurate manner misrepresents the footage and misleads the viewer. Using incorrect dates or locations are examples of subverting context.
Sharing a brief clip from a longer video creates a false narrative that does not reflect the event as it occurred. Point-of-view videos also belong in this category when they promote only one angle of a story.
Editing out large portions from a video and presenting it as a complete narrative, despite missing key elements, is a technique used to skew reality.
Editing together disparate videos fundamentally alters the story that is being told.
Altering the frames of a video — cropping, changing speed, using Photoshop, dubbing audio, or adding or deleting visual information — can deceive the viewer.
Using Artificial Intelligence to create high-quality fake images simulates audio and convincingly swaps out background images. Deepfakes and other synthetic media fall into this category.
About this story
This guide was developed by Nadine Ajaka, Glenn Kessler, and Elyse Samuels. By searching through and watching many hours of manipulated videos and reflecting on notable examples in the news cycle, we were able to pull out common threads for this standardized vocabulary. As the technology to manipulate video advances, there’s even more urgency to understand what’s real versus fake. This page will update with new examples as they emerge, so if you see a suspicious video, send it to us using the submission form below.